Earth Sciences Division (ESD) is one of the four divisions of Pakistan Museum of Natural History (PMNH) with the mandate to build reference collection of Igneous, Sedimentary and Metamorphic rocks, fossils (Vertebrate and Invertebrate) and minerals found in Pakistan for the purpose of identification, research and public education. Scientists in this division are engaged in building up comprehensive paleontological, anthropological and geological reference collection.
Regular field expeditions are being organized by the ESD scientists in the different regions of Punjab, Khyber Pakthtunkhwa, Balochistan and Sindh to explore natural wealth of Pakistan. These expeditions are the result of joint ventures at national and international level. Repository of ESD contains specimens of all three types of rocks, vertebrate and invertebrate fossils, minerals and gemstones available for the research and education. Geologists/Paleontologists of ESD carried out extensive field works in the last 40 years for the collection of rocks, fossils and minerals data from the different areas of Pakistan e.g. Potwar Plateau, Salt Range, Hazara area, Kala Chitta Range, Balochistan, Districts Swat, including lower and upper Swat, Mohammad Agency, Bajaur Agency/Malakand Agency, Northern Areas, (Gilgit-Baltistan), Yasin Valley, Ashkuman valley, Gupis-Gakuch, Hunza Valley up to Khunjrab, Chitral (Shishi valley up to Madaglasht), Gilgit, District Kohistan, Besham-Jijal-Duban-Patan (All along KKH), Part of Darel, Tangi valleys, Kaghan area (along Kaghan-Kohistan water-shed) and District Mansehra. As a result of these widespread excursions, ESD reference collection is quite rich in rocks, minerals, vertebrate and invertebrate specimens.
Scientists of ESD, since 1976, are collaborating with many international research organizations, institutes and academia and have completed many international research projects for biostratigraphical, sedimentological, faunal and geological/paleontological studies in association with Peabody Museum, Harvard University, Cambridge, Massachusetts, USA, University of Arizona, Tucson, USA, Northeastren Ohion University, College of Medicine, Rootstown, Ohio, USA, Howard University, College of Medicine, Washington D.C. USA, American Museum of Natural History, New York, USA, Swiss Federal Institute of Technology, Switzerland, Montpellier University, France, and University of Zurich (PIMUZ), Switzerland. Discovery of world largest mammal (Rhino) fossils “Baluchitherium” is also credited on account of joint international collaboration between ESD, PMNH and Montpellier University, France in the area of Dera Bugti, Balochistan.
For educational activities, the Earth Sciences Division provided assistance in preparation of educational exhibits, displays and dioramas for the general public, students and teachers for creating awarness about natural history of different areas of Pakistan. Many exhibits/galleries of ESD are excellently providing information about different types of rocks sequences, minerals, fossils, evolution of life with respect to geological time and Gemstones industry in Pakistan.