Botanical Sciences Division is one of the three Science Divisions of PMNH dealing with plants – their collection, preservation and identification in the Lab/Herbarium and its management as well as conservation in the field. The collection references are sub-divided into three herbaria including phanerogamic, mycological and phycological herbaria with approximately 0.15 million specimens. Collections consist of specimens from all over Pakistan and are increasing exponentialy. This historical and high valued scientific collection is the only source of basic and applied sciences research for researchers/ scientists of all over the world. The BSD also guides and helps researchers/students and other concerned persons/organizations in proper identification, management and utilization of Flora of Pakistan and educate common man about the importance of plants and potential threats to Plant Biodiversity.


It's research is predominately focused on systematics and biodiversity.

Flowering plants Herbarium:

Research interests of botanists at flowering plants herbarium deals with various issues of systematic botany where the external morphology, internal anatomy, palynology and sequences of DNA is used to formulate hypotheses of common ancestry and evolutionary patterns. Taxonomic revisions of the Apocynacea, Lamiaceae, Caryophyllaceae, Prunaceae, and other diverse plant families, plant ecology climate change, and pharmacological evaluation for the search of new antioxidant compounds in plants are other fields of research. They also are actively involved in developing the next generation of botanists by training undergraduate and graduate students.

Mycological Herbarium:

Mycologists are documenting and understanding the diversity and biogeography of fungi, the effect of human activity on this diversity, and the mutually beneficial symbiosis that some fungi form with plants. They also are actively involved in developing the next generation of mycologists by training undergraduate and graduate students.

Phycological Herbarium:

Scientists at phycological herbarium have broad research interests that include systematics, ecology, conservation, and education outreach with relation to fresh water and marine algae. Research at this herbarium claims their ways into our lives as profitable products in the form of foods, biodiesel and commercial ingredients. They are also actively involved in training of research students.

Main Objectives:

  • Collection of plants from all over Pakistan and Azad Kashmir, their preservation and systematic arrangement.
  • Taxonomic identification of plants and their classification in to Families, Genera and Species.
  • To build a “National Repository of Plants” in the form of Herbarium for ready references to researchers and other users.
  • To educate general public and guide the students/researchers (M.Sc., M.Phil, Ph.D) for their thesis.
  • To provide information and plant material for PMNH display activities
  • To advise the Govt. agencies/NGOs and International organizations like IUCN, WWF, FAO, WHO in connection with the proper management and utilization of plants.
  • To deliver lectures and hold symposia/seminars/workshops to indicate the role of Natural History.
  • To publish the research findings in the form of books/articles etc, beside other publications like brochures, posters pamphlets and diromas.
  • Industrial linkage